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Table 1 Comparison of promoters used in DNA expression studies in vitro and in vivo

From: DNA vaccines: improving expression of antigens

Expressed antigen Promoters/enhancers compared In vitro/in vivo comparison Reference
GFP CMV, muscle-specific creatine kinase (CKM) promoter Consistently higher levels of GFP expression were driven by the CKM promoter compared to CMV in mice. [5]
LacZ CMV, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) promoter Injection of mice with the constructs containing the different promoters showed that GFAP is as efficient at driving lacZ expression as CMV. [6]
CAT HIV-1-LTR (long terminal repeat), RSV-TAR (transactivation response element) HIV-1-LTR could be transactivated by tat in both stimulated and unstimulated cells; RSV-TAR was only transactivated in unstimulated cells. [7]
CAT CMV, RSV, SV40, murine leukemia virus (SL3-3) promoter The CMV promoter was found to be stronger than any of the other promoters tested in muscle. [8]
CAT CMV, SV2 The CMV promoter was found to have greatest transcriptional activity. [9]
Luciferase CMV, RSV, SV40, PGK, hybrid β-actin promoter/CMV enhancer, CMV/IA (intron A) The hybrid β-actin/CMV promoter/enhancer showed greater luciferase expression than RSV, SV40, PGK or CMV. CMV/IA also showed 2–6 fold in vitro and 1.5–3 fold in vivo higher luciferase expression than CMV. [10]
Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) CMV, desmin The promoters performed equally well in vitro, and CTL and Th1 serum antibody responses against HbsAg in mice were of similar magnitude. [11]
Hepatitis B envelope proteins CMV, desmin Greater in vitro expression of antigen was attributed to the desmin promoter. However, comparable humoral and cytotoxic immune responses were stimulated following i.m. injection of mice. [12]
Rabies virus G protein CMV, SV40 Comparable G antigen-specific antibody titres were stimulated in mice. Slightly higher T cell responses were observed from the CMV construct. [13]
Influenza virus H5 hemagglutinin (HA) CMV, β-actin Constructs containing the CMV or β-actin promoters provided comparable protection against influenza in chickens. [14]
Influenza virus H5 hemagglutinin (HA) CMV, β-actin, RSV, SV40 Similar in vitro expression of HA. The greatest HA-specific antibody and protection against influenza in chickens was provided with the CMV construct. [15]
Bovine herpesvirus glycoprotein D (gD) RSV, CMV/IA CMV/IA construct produced higher neutralising antibody titres against gD in i.d. injected cattle. [16]
HIV-1 gag/env CMV, AKV murine leukemia viral long terminal repeat CMV showed 10–20 fold greater activity than AKV in vitro. Immunised macaques developed high humoral responses with the CMVconstruct only. [17]
SV40 large tumour antigen CMV, SV40 The CMV construct induced higher levels of antibody and protection in the murine experimental metastasis model than the SV40 construct. [18]
M. tuberculosis apa + pro proteins CMV, UbC The CMV promoter was the most efficient tested. [19]
Adenovirus E4 ORF3 CMV, RSV, SV40, UbC, EF-1α Following i.n. dosing to mice, constructs containing the UbC and EF-1α promoters stimulated the most stable expression of antigen [20]