- Open Access
Biodistribution and blood clearance of plasmid DNA administered in arginine peptide complexes
© Woo et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
- Received: 17 March 2011
- Accepted: 17 August 2011
- Published: 17 August 2011
Peptide/DNA complexes have great potential as non-viral methods for gene delivery. Despite promising results for peptide-mediated gene delivery technology, an effective systemic peptide-based gene delivery system has not yet been developed.
This study used pCMV-Luc as a model gene to investigate the biodistribution and the in vivo efficacy of arginine peptide-mediated gene delivery by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Plasmid DNA was detected in all organs tested 1 h after intraperitoneal administration of arginine/DNA complexes, indicating that the arginine/DNA complexes disseminated widely through the body. The plasmid was primarily detected in the spleen, kidney, and diaphragm 24 h post administration. The mRNA expression of plasmid DNA was noted in the spleen, kidney, and diaphragm for up to 2 weeks, and in the other major organs, for at least 1 week. Blood clearance studies showed that injected DNA was found in the blood as long as 6 h after injection.
Taken together, our results demonstrated that arginine/DNA complexes are stable in blood and are effective for in vivo gene delivery. These findings suggest that intraperitoneal administration of arginine/DNA complexes is a promising tool in gene therapy.
- Arginine peptide
- Gene therapy
- Peptide vector
- Systemic gene delivery
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been widely shown to transfer macromolecules into living cells [1, 2]. Several of these peptides have been identified, such as Tat , Antp , and VP22 . Carrier peptides, which are fused to their cargo molecules, provide a method for delivering intracellularly acting proteins or nucleic acids to cells in vitro [6, 7], ex vivo , and in vivo [9, 10]. For example, it was recently reported that CPPs are highly efficient in facilitating the cellular uptake of small interfering RNA (siRNA) [11, 12]. Most CPPs contain at least 1 basic amino acid residue such as arginine or lysine, suggesting that basic amino acids are critical motifs for the efficient delivery of exogenous biomolecules into cells [13, 14].
The authors have focused on the development of an arginine peptide-mediated gene delivery system after previously demonstrating that a short arginine peptide (R15) is able to condense plasmid DNA into small complexes. The highest transfection activity in 293T, HeLa, Jurkat, and COS-7 cells was obtained for arginine/DNA complexes with an N/P ratio of 3:1 . The size of the arginine/DNA complex was shown to be the primary limitation for transfection efficiency in vitro . Confocal laser fluorescence microscopy data showed that arginine peptides facilitated the movement of DNA from the cytoplasm, causing DNA to accumulate in the nucleus .
The success of gene therapy depends on the development of a vector that achieves efficient, cell-specific, and prolonged transgene expression after its application . Although viral vectors have the highest transfection efficiency among the many possible gene carriers, safety concerns have led to reconsideration of their use in human gene therapy. Non-viral vectors such as cationic peptides are considered safer and easier to prepare than viral vectors, and are, therefore, more attractive vectors for clinical application of gene therapy . Despite their usefulness, there has been little systemic in vivo study of peptide vectors. More importantly, studies on the pharmacological profile of intraperitoneally administered arginine/DNA complexes are completely lacking. Determining critical pharmacological parameters such as plasmid biodistribution, blood clearance half-life, in vivo persistence, and gene expression is very important in the design of new delivery strategies.
Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the in vivo fate of arginine/DNA complexes after their intraperitoneal administration in mice using luciferase as a reporter gene. Organ distribution in terms of plasmid localization, DNA expression, and circulation kinetics were assessed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to assess plasmid DNA and expression of DNA in the different organs.
Plasmid DNA containing firefly luciferase under the control of a CMV-promoter (pCMV-Luc) was provided by Promega (Madison, WI, USA). The plasmid DNA was amplified in Escherichia coli TOP10-competent cells and purified with an AxyPrep™Plasmid Maxiprep Kit (Union City, CA, USA), according to the manufacturer's instructions. The quality of plasmid DNA preparations was determined using NanoDrop ND-1000 (Wilmington, DE, USA). Typical optical density (O.D.) at 260/280 nm values were approximately 1.9. DNA was stored at -20°C until use.
Formation of arginine/DNA complexes
Arginine/DNA complexes were generated at an N/P ratio of 3:1, as described previously . Plasmid DNA (100 μg) was added to a 5% glucose solution and 6.1 μL of 10 mM arginine peptide (R15; Peptron, Daejeon, Korea) was added to the final 5% glucose solution and adjusted to a final volume of 500 μL. To form the arginine/DNA complexes, the solution was pipetted and vigorously mixed by vortexing. The complex solution was incubated for 15 min at room temperature (25°C) and intraperitoneally administered to the mice.
In vivogene delivery
All animal work was conducted according to the guidelines established by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the Sogang University. Female Balb/c mice (Samtako, Osan, Korea) weighing 19-20 g (5-week-old) were used for in vivo gene delivery. Five hundred microliters of the arginine/DNA complex (N/P ratio of 3.0; 100 μg pCMV-Luc) in 5% glucose solution was administered by intraperitoneal injection with a 27-gauge syringe needle.
For biodistribution experiments, blood was collected from the vena cava of Balb/c mice intraperitoneally injected with the arginine/DNA complex solution under ether anesthesia at the indicated time points, and the mice were subsequently killed by cervical dislocation. The organs (liver, lung, heart, spleen, brain, diaphragm, and kidney) were removed. Samples were thoroughly washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) to minimize the influence of plasmid in the blood, blotted dry, and weighed. Blood samples were treated with heparin (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA) to prevent aggregation.
Isolation of DNA and RNA
At various time points following intraperitoneal administration of arginine/DNA complexes, samples of several tissue types were obtained, including the liver, heart, spleen, brain, diaphragm, kidney, and blood. Subsequently, samples were homogenized using a BioMasher (Nippi, Tokyo, Japan) or a glass homogenizer. The DNA was purified using the DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA) protocol. Total RNA was extracted from each sample using the RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen).
PCR detection of plasmid DNA
PCR was used to visualize reporter gene biodistribution to each organ. The primers used in the reactions were as follows: luciferase forward primer 5'-tgcactgatcatgaactc-3' and reverse primer 5'-ggacataatcataggacc-3'. The reactions were set up using 50 ng of total DNA and 2 × Premix Taq (Takara, Seoul, Korea). The PCR process was controlled by a MasterCycler (Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany) as follows: pre-incubation at 94°C for 5 min, 40 cycles of denaturation at 94°C for 30 s, annealing at 50°C for 30 s, extension at 72°C for 40 s, and post-amplification at 72°C for 7 min. Nested PCR was used to examine blood clearance and the duration of mRNA expression. Reactions were constructed as an additional nested PCR after the first PCR. The nested PCR reaction was constructed as follows: luciferase nested forward 5'-cgctgctggtgccaaccc-3' and luciferase nested reverse 5'-tttaccgaccgcgcccgg-3' primers, template, 3 μL of the first PCR product, and 2 × Premix Taq. The second PCR thermal cycle was the same as the first, except that the annealing and extension temperatures and times were 62°C for 30 s and 72°C for 20 s, respectively. The PCR products were visualized using 1.2% agarose gel electrophoresis.
Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assay
To determine the mRNA expression of the administered plasmid DNA in various organs, mRNA levels were measured using RT-PCR. To prepare the cDNA templates, 2 μg of total RNA from each organ were used as a template for reverse transcription using AccuPower RT Premix (Bioneer, Daejeon, Korea) with Oligo dT as a primer for reverse-transcriptase. The cDNA was synthesized at 70°C for 10 min, at 42°C for 1 h, and at 94°C for 5 min.
Relative quantification of reporter gene mRNA
The real-time PCR reaction for relative quantification of luciferase mRNA was performed in 20-μL reaction volume containing 0.5 μL of luciferase nested forward and reverse primers, 2 μL template cDNA, 0.4 μL ROX reference dye, and 10 μL of 2 × SYBR Premix Ex Taq (Takara, Seoul, Korea). The thermal cycler protocol was set as follows: pre-incubation at 95°C for 10 s, amplification at 40 cycles at 95°C for 5 s, and 60°C for 40 s. For the mouse glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) cDNA measurements, each sample was prepared following the manufacturer's instructions with a GAPDH primer set (Qiagen). Relative quantification was expressed as the SYBR fluorescence ratio as luciferase fluorescence/GAPDH fluorescence.
Biodistribution of intraperitoneally administered plasmid DNA
Quantification of mRNA expression in organs
pCMV-Luc plasmid DNA dose response
Duration of plasmid DNA expression
Blood clearance of plasmid DNA
CPPs have shown efficient in vitro transfection efficiency without significant cellular toxicity . Over the past decade, peptide vectors have been shown to be an effective way of delivering DNA into cells, and unlike viral vectors, peptides do not present safety concerns such as immunogenicity and insertional mutagenesis. Peptide vectors are able to compact and protect DNA, enter cells via endocytosis, and deliver DNA cargo to the nucleus [2, 14]. Efficient cell-specific delivery of peptide/DNA complexes is a major advantage of peptide vectors. Several small peptides have been described, most notably the tripeptide motif RGD, which targets integrin receptors specially. RGD-containing peptides associated with polylysine significantly improve the delivery of DNA into specific cell lines . Another targeting approach is to use targeting moieties, such as the epidermal growth factor peptide which targets mainly cancer cells, covalently linked to one of the component of the peptide/DNA complex . Although peptide vectors are under intensive investigation as promising vectors for gene therapy, relatively little information is available regarding the in vivo pharmacological profiles of administered peptide vectors. In this paper, the performance of a short arginine peptide (R15) vector as a gene carrier was evaluated in vivo.
The biodistribution of DNA complexes with arginine peptide after intraperitoneal administration was initially investigated using PCR analysis, indicating that intraperitoneally applied arginine/DNA complexes were absorbed into the systemic circulation and distributed to the major organs of mice. Plasmid DNA was found in all analyzed organs, including the spleen, liver, heart, lung, kidney, brain, and diaphragm. Similar observations have been previously reported by other groups after intraperitoneal injection of polyplex  or lipoplex in mice [23, 24]. For example, Louis et al. reported that large amounts of plasmid DNA were detected in the kidney, spleen, and diaphragm after intraperitoneal injection of DNA with polyethylenimine . It is notable that low but significant quantities of plasmid DNA were localized in the brain. Recently, it was reported that arginine peptide efficiently facilitates rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG)-mediated brain cell uptake of siRNA , and that high brain uptake values were observed for penetratin and Tat . These results suggest that arginine-associated delivery will be useful for the brain-directed transport of therapeutic molecules. Plasmid DNA clearance varied in different organs and the rapid disappearance of DNA from the liver, heart, brain, and lungs suggests that plasmid DNA is locally degraded by nucleases.
The mRNA expression pattern was in good agreement with the plasmid DNA localization data. Significant mRNA expression of the luciferase gene in the plasmid DNA was observed in all of the tested organs (Figure 2). mRNA was detected as early as 1 h after DNA injection, suggesting that the intraperitoneally administered plasmid DNA complexed with arginine peptide was delivered to various organs in a sufficiently intact form for transcription. Similar rapid gene expression was reported in a previous study, in which luciferase activity was detected as early as 3 h after plasmid DNA infusion into mice . In agreement with the pattern of plasmid clearance revealed by PCR analysis, the mRNA expression level was highest in the spleen and diaphragm, in which the longest presence of plasmid DNA was observed. To determine the effect of plasmid dose on mRNA expression, the plasmid DNA dose was increased up to 300 μg. Interestingly, the mRNA expression levels of plasmid DNA did not increase with the increased amounts of plasmid DNA (Figure 3), suggesting that a saturation phenomenon occurred under these experimental conditions. Previous studies have demonstrated that the gene expression level does not correspond with the amount of administered cationic liposome/DNA complexes [28, 29].
Prolonged expression of plasmid DNA was observed in arginine/DNA complex-treated mice (Figure 4), which is comparable to the previous observations in naked DNA-treated mice. However, the organs of naked DNA-treated mice did not express mRNA from the topically or intravenously administered genes 3 to 5 days after dosing . In contrast, the results presented herein show that some organs retained high levels of mRNA expression for more than 14 days after application. Prolonged blood circulation of plasmid DNA was also observed in arginine/DNA complex-treated mice (Figure 5), and the blood circulation time in the present study was 6 h. To put this rate in context with other non-viral vectors, polylysine/DNA complexes are cleared from circulation within 5 to 30 min [31, 32]. Cationic liposome/DNA complexes are cleared more rapidly, with only 10% of the injected complexes remaining detectable in the blood as little as 1 min after injection . Taken together, these results provide evidence that arginine/DNA complexes are stable for a relatively prolonged time under in vivo conditions, which is one of the critical requirements for an efficient gene delivery vector. Furthermore, preferential plasmid distribution was observed in the diaphragm, which presents a peritoneal surface. Tumors in the peritoneal cavity are difficult to detect and cancer often persists despite surgery and other treatments . In case of ovarian cancer, overall 5-year survival rate is very low, mainly as a consequence of late tumor detection (after peritoneal dissemination) and chemoresistance following chemotherapy. Therefore, the efficient peritoneal cavity-preferential gene delivery and prolongation of complex stability under in vivo conditions suggest that the intraperitoneal injection of arginine peptide/DNA complexes will play an important role in future gene therapies for peritoneal malignancies.
In summary, the present findings demonstrate that arginine/DNA complexes are very stable when administered intraperitoneally, and are effective agents for in vivo gene delivery. Although optimization studies of these strategies need to be continued, the information presented in this paper will be valuable for the development of peptide-based vectors to enhance the potential of gene therapy. Further studies will be focused on understanding the factors affecting the biodistribution and examining the possibility of targeting specific organs and cell types.
This work was supported through grant funding from Priority Research Centers Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (2009-0093822).
- Schwarze SR, Dowdy SF: In vivo protein transduction: intracellular delivery of biologically active proteins, compounds and DNA. Trends Pharmaco Sci. 2000, 21: 45-48. 10.1016/S0165-6147(99)01429-7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gupta B, Levchenko TS, Torchilin VP: Intracellular delivery of large molecules and small particles by cell penetrating proteins and peptides. Adv Drug Delivery Rev. 2005, 57: 637-651. 10.1016/j.addr.2004.10.007.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fawell S, Serry J, Daikh Y, Moore C, Chen LL, Pepinsky BJ, Barsoum J: Tat-mediated delivery of heterologous proteins into cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1994, 91: 664-668. 10.1073/pnas.91.2.664.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Derossi D, Joliot AH, Chassaing G, Prochiantz A: The third helix of the Antennapedia homeodomain translocates through biological membranes. J Biol Chem. 1994, 269: 10444-10450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Phelan A, Elliott G, Ohare P: Intracellular delivery of functional p53 by herpes virus protein VP22. Nat Biotechnol. 1998, 16: 440-443. 10.1038/nbt0598-440.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Violini S, Sharma V, Prior JL, Dyszlewski M, Piwnica-Worms D: Evidence for a plasma membrane-mediated permeability barrier to Tat basic domain in well-differentiated epithelial cells: lack of correlation with heparan sulfate. Biochem. 2002, 41: 12652-12661. 10.1021/bi026097e.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Takeshima K, Chikushi A, Lee KK, Yonehara S, Matsuzaki K: Translocation of analogues of the antimicrobial peptides magainin and buforin across human cell membrane. J Biol Chem. 2003, 278: 1310-1315. 10.1074/jbc.M208762200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gustafsson AB, Sayen MR, Williams SD, Crow MT, Gottlieb RA: TAT protein transduction into isolated perfused hearts: TAT-apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain is cardioprotective. Circulation. 2002, 106: 733-759.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schwarze SR, Ho A, Vocero-Akbani A, Dowdy SF: In vivo protein transduction: delivery of a biologically active protein into the mouse. Science. 1999, 285: 1569-1572. 10.1126/science.285.5433.1569.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Begley R, Liron T, Baryza J, Mochly-Rosen D: Biodistribution of intracellularly peptides conjugated reversibly to TAT. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004, 318: 949-954. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.04.121.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kumar P, Wu H, McBride JL, Jung KE, Kim MH, Davidson BL, Lee SK, Shanker P, Manjunath N: Transvascular delivery of small interfering RNA to the central nervous system. Nature. 2007, 448: 39-43. 10.1038/nature05901.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim SW, Kim NY, Choi YB, Park SH, Yang JM, Shin S: RNA interference in vitro and in vivo using an arginine peptide/siRNA complex system. J Control Rel. 2010, 143: 335-343. 10.1016/j.jconrel.2010.01.009.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Futaki S, Suzuki T, Ohashi W, Yagami T, Tanaka S, Ueda K, Sugiura Y: Arginine rich peptides: an abundant source of membrane permeable peptides having potential as carriers for intracellular protein delivery. J Biol Chem. 2001, 276: 5836-5840. 10.1074/jbc.M007540200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Futaki S: Oligoarginine vectors for intracellular delivery: design and cellular-uptake mechanisms. Biopolymers. 2005, 84: 241-249.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim HH, Lee WS, Yang JM, Shin S: Basic peptide system for efficient delivery of foreign genes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003, 1640: 129-136. 10.1016/S0167-4889(03)00028-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Choi HS, Kim HH, Yang JM, Shin S: An insight into the gene delivery mechanism of the arginine peptide system: Role of the peptide/DNA complex size. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006, 1760: 1604-1612.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim HH, Choi HS, Yang JM, Shin S: Characterization of gene delivery in vitro and in vivo by the arginine peptide system. Int J Pharmaceu. 2007, 335: 70-78. 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2006.11.017.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Niidome T, Huang H: Gene therapy progress a prospects: nonviral vectors. Gene Ther. 2002, 9: 1647-1653. 10.1038/sj.gt.3301923.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Glover DJ, Lipps HJ, Jans DA: Towards safe, nonviral therapeutic gene expression in humans. Nat Rev Genet. 2005, 6: 299-310. 10.1038/nrg1577.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Martin ME, Rice KG: Peptide-guided gene delivery. AAPSJ. 2007, 9: E18-E29. 10.1208/aapsj0901003.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Morris MC, Chaloin L, Heitz F, Divita G: Translocating peptides and proteins and their use for gene delivery. Curr Opinion Biotech. 2000, 11: 461-468. 10.1016/S0958-1669(00)00128-2.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Akoi K, Furuhata S, Hatanaka K, Maeda M, Remy JS, Behr JP, Terada M, Yoshida T: Polyethylenimine-mediated gene transfer into pancreatic tumor dissemination in the murine peritoneal cavity. Gene Ther. 2001, 8: 508-514. 10.1038/sj.gt.3301435.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fellowes R, Etheridge CJ, Coade S, Cooper RG, Stewart L, Miller AD, Woo P: Amelioration of established collagen induced arthritis by systemic IL-10 gene delivery. Gene Ther. 2000, 7: 967-977. 10.1038/sj.gt.3301165.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hattori Y, Kawakami S, Nakamura K, Yamashita F, Hashida M: Efficient gene transfer into macrophages and dendritic cells by in vivo gene delivery with mannosylated lipoplex via the intraperitoneal route. J Pharmaco Experi Ther. 2006, 318: 828-834. 10.1124/jpet.106.105098.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Louis MH, Dutoit S, Denoux Y, Erbacher P, Deslandes E, Behr JP, Gauduchon P, Poulain L: Intraperitoneal linear polyethylenimine (L-PEI)-mediated gene delivery to ovarian carcinoma nodes in mice. Cancer Gene Ther. 2006, 13: 367-374. 10.1038/sj.cgt.7700893.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sarko D, Beijer B, Boy RG, Nothelfer E, Leota K, Eisenhut M, Altmann A, Haberkorn U, Mier W: The pharmacokinetics of cell-penetrating peptides. Mol Pharma. 2010, 7: 2224-2231. 10.1021/mp100223d.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wilber A, randsen JL, Wangensteen KJ, Ekker SC, Wang X, Mcivor RS: Dynamic gene expression after systemic delivery of plasmid DNA as determined by in vivo bioluminescence imaging. Human Gene Ther. 2005, 16: 1325-1332. 10.1089/hum.2005.16.1325.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lizinger DC, Brown JM, Wala I, Kaufman SA, Van GY, Farrell CL, Collins D: Fate of cationic liposomes and their complex with oligonucleotide in vivo. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996, 1281: 139-149. 10.1016/0005-2736(95)00268-5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Reimer DL, Kong S, Monck M, Wyles J, Tam P, Wasan EK, Bally MB: Liposomal lipid and plasmid DNA delivery to B16/BL6 tumors after intraperioneal administration of cationic liposome DNA aggregates. J Pharmaco Experi Ther. 1999, 289: 807-815.Google Scholar
- Kang MJ, Kim CK, Kim MY, Hwang TS, Kang SY, Kim WK, Ko JJ, Oh YK: Skin permeation, biodistribution, and expression of topically applied plasmid DNA. J Gene Med. 2004, 6: 1238-1246. 10.1002/jgm.620.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dash PR, Read ML, Barrett LB, Wolfert MA, Seymour LW: Factors affecting blood clearance and in vivo distribution of polyelectrolyte complexes for gene delivery. Gene Ther. 1999, 6: 643-650. 10.1038/sj.gt.3300843.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oupicky D, Howard KA, Konak C, Dash PR, Ulbrich K, Seymour LW: Steric stabilization of poly-L-Lysine/DNA complexes by the covalent attachment of semitelechelic poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide]. Bioconjugate Chem. 2000, 11: 492-501. 10.1021/bc990143e.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mahato RI, Kawabata K, Takakura Y, Hashida M: In vivo disposition characteristics of plasmid DNA complexed with cationic liposomes. J Drug Target. 1995, 3: 149-157. 10.3109/10611869509059214.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bajaj G, Yeo Y: Drug delivery system for intraperitoneal therapy. Pharmaceutical Res. 2010, 27: 735-738. 10.1007/s11095-009-0031-z.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.